History of Lasik Eye Surgery


Jose I. Barraquer Moner invented and perfected keratomileusis, the first stromal sculpting technique to cure refractive defects, in 1948. Keratomileusis is a medical term that literally means “sculpting of the cornea.” In Barraquer’s initial operations, stromal tissue was cut away using a lathe after an anterior corneal tissue disc was frozen. So, let’s discuss the History of Lasik Eye Surgery!

A second pass of the microkeratome was used to remove tissue from the disc’s underside in the Barraquer-Krumeich-Swinger non-freeze approach, which was the first advancement in the operation over time. Later, in-situ keratomileusis was created by repeatedly passing the microkeratome over the stromal substrate. The treatment was further improved by replacing the disc without sutures and then by pausing the microkeratome before the end of the pass to generate a hinged flap, as first shown in 1989.

With the development of an automated microkeratome, the procedure became known as automated lamellar keratoplasty. The excimer laser’s origins may be traced to 1900 and the quantum theory, which finally led to the finding that tissue could be photo ablated by 193-nm ultraviolet excimer laser pulses without suffering thermal damage.

Large area ablation in the middle cornea was validated by tests on ultrastructure and wound healing. The first seeing eyes were treated in 1988, and the procedure was initially characterized as photorefractive keratectomy in 1986. In 1988, a manually made hinged flap using a trephine and scalpel was sculpted from the stromal bed using an excimer laser. Laser in situ keratomileusis, often known as LASIK, lead to the History of Lasik Eye Surgery. It was eventually developed in 1990 after the inclusion of a microkeratome.


History of Lasik Eye Surgery- Prior to Lasik

Ophthalmology’s history, or the science of eyes, has existed since a very long time. Ancient Egyptian literature provides theories on a variety of eye disorders, from cataracts to ophthalmoplegia.

In ancient India, cataract extractions were carried out. By the first millennium, the Arab scholar Ibn Al-Haytham had established that the eye’s absorption of incoming light is what causes vision. Glasses were created as early as the 13th century, and soon after, they started to appear in portraiture. In the early 19th century, Austrian scientist Georg Beer developed the first surgical “flap” for the treatment of cataracts.

The development of the first ophthalmoscopes and slit lights in the latter 19th and early 20th century paved the way for more study of the inner eye and the development of therapies for illnesses connected to the inner eye. In research and therapeutic settings, scientists had successfully introduced gonioscopy, streak retinoscopy, intraocular lenses, and more by 1950. However, there was still no permanent treatment for nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism, which caused fuzzy vision.


Better Vision Correction Is Needed

By that time, scientists had realized that a cornea with an uneven shape causes incoming light to be processed wrongly onto the retina, resulting in hazy vision.

However, at the time, the only options for correcting vision were spectacles and contact lenses.


Initial Corneal-Reshaping Operations
Procedures for reshaping the cornea gave people the chance to fix their vision more permanently. Svyatoslav Fyodorov made the unexpected revelation that during the 1970s, a fistfight in Russia resulted in a little kid getting glass fragments embedded in his eyes.
When he went to see Dr. Fyodorov, the glass was taken out. Fyodorov was taken aback to learn that the boy’s vision improved when the corneal lesions healed.

Fyodorov started doing experiments on rabbit corneas to make deliberate wounds that, when healed, would restore 20/20 vision. This resulted in the creation of radial keratotomy, the last and most widely used surgical method for the treatment of myopia before LASIK.

The first laser (non-LASIK) procedure: In Louisiana, Dr. Marguerite McDonald performed the first laser vision correction procedure on a human eye in 1988. LASIK was motivated by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), which shares many parallels with it. Today, PRK is still in use.


Introduction of Lasik- the Beginning

The first U.S. patent for the “flap” method of keratomileusis was obtained by ophthalmologist Gholam A. Peyman in 1989 after further years of experimentation with microkeratomes in laboratories all around the world.

Localized ablation of corneal tissue was possible thanks to the creation of a corneal flap or aperture. In essence, this was the first LASIK patent. Using a modified version of Jose Barraquer’s microkeratome, Dr. Ioannis Pallikaris carried out the first LASIK treatment one year after the first patent.


Fda Acceptance
After years of continuing research and clinical studies, LASIK received FDA certification for therapeutic use in 1999.


Modern-day Lasik
Soon after receiving clearance, LASIK rose to the top position among surgical methods used to improve eyesight in the United States. By 2021, there will likely be at least 25 million LASIK operations.
It is commonly recognized as a secure and productive method of long-term vision correction. More than 95% of LASIK patients are pleased with the outcome.


Improving Lasik
There are currently several types of LASIK lasers that have received FDA approval, including the more recent, minimally invasive femtosecond laser.

Instead of using microkeratomes to generate the flap, it employs infrared radiation. Micrometer-thin cuts made by the femtosecond laser heal more quickly. Another development in the area is the use of wavefront technology. During the consultation procedure, topographic maps of the patient’s cornea are produced using computerized techniques. This enables doctors to have a deeper grasp of the peculiarities and complexities of each cornea.


The Prospects for Lasik
Around the world, LASIK research is still being developed in lab and clinical settings. LASIK technology has advanced in the sector, offering great degrees of customization, better results, minimal risk of problems, and quicker recovery times.
Future advancements in LASIK are anticipated to enable even greater accuracy. This is an advancement over a very sophisticated process.

Due to its popularity, there are many alternatives for physicians, medical facilities, treatment programs, and procedures. Examine the track records, educational backgrounds, and other qualifications of possible suppliers in detail to guarantee good results. During consultations, be sure to grill them extensively about their LASIK experience.


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